At the end of October 2016, Canada’s Prime Minister signed the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between Canada and the European Union and its member states. Hundreds of pages long, the agreement contains a detailed protocol to “amicably” resolve disputes between investors and states. The first step for disputing parties is a “consultation” through video conference or other means. Mediation with a mediator of their choice is also an option. If a dispute remains outstanding, the investor can submit a claim to a tribunal composed of members with judge-like credentials. And, tribunal decisions can be appealed to an appellate body that can “uphold, modify or reverse a Tribunal’s award” on grounds that include error of law and “manifest errors in the appreciation of the facts.” Find the text here http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52016PC0470.